Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal which is one of the natural wonders of the world. Located in the delta region of the river Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra, Khulna, Satkhira, Bagerhat, Patuakhali and Barguna districts and two districts of the state of West Bengal spread across North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas. The Sundarbans is the largest forested forest in the world as the largest mangrove forest in the coastal environment.The Sundarbans, which are spread over 10,000 sq km, are 6017 sq km in Bangladesh and the rest is in India. Sundarbans was recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The Bangladesh and Indian part of it is in fact the adjacent part of the same uninterrupted land, but the UNESCO World Heritage list has been listed in different names; In the name of "Sundarbans" and "Sundarban National Park" respectively. The Sundarbans are trapped in the net, with small streams of marine streams, mud shores and mangrove forests, small-scale archipelago. 31.1 percent of the total forest area, which is 1,874 sq km, is riverine, inlet and bills, and is a watery area. Forests, well-known Royal Bengal tiger, besides many species of birds, Chitra deer, crocodiles and snakes are also known as habitats. According to the survey, 500 tigers and 30,000 chitra deer are now in the Sunderban area. On 21 May 1992, the Sundarbans were recognized as the place of Ramsar.


Sundarbans literally means beautiful forest or beautiful woodland in Bengal. The Sundarbans may have been named after Sundarbans, which grow in abundance there. Other possible explanations may be that it may have been named "Sea Forest" or "Chandra-Bandhede (Dam)" (Old Indigenous). But it is generally assumed that Sundarbans have been named from the beautiful trees.


In the Mughal period (1203-1538) a local king took the lease of the Sundarbans. Those fundamental changes that have been made in historical legal changes include being recognized as the world's first mangrove forest and under science-based supervision. The map of the Sundarbans area was prepared in 1757 after getting the rights from the Mughal Emperor Alamgir by the East India Company. The forest area is under organizational management since the establishment of forest department in India's then Bengal province in 1860 AD.
At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the size of the Sundarbans was nearly twice the present. Human pressure on the forest gradually shrunk its area. In 1828 the British government acquired the title of Sundarbans. L. T. Hajiz conducted the first survey of Sundarbans in 1829. In 1878 the entire Sundarbans area was declared as reserve forest and in 1879, the responsibilities of the entire Sundarbans were entrusted to forest department. The name of the first divisional forest officer of the Sundarbans is M. U. Green in 1884, he served as the Divisional Forest Officer of the Sundarbans. During the partition of India in 1947, 6,017 sq km of the Sundarbans fell into Bangladesh. Which is around 4.2% of Bangladesh's area and about 44% of the entire forest area.

The legal rights of the first forest management department were established on Sundarbans in 1869. According to Forest Act (Section 8) of 1965, a large part of the Sundarbans was declared as reserved forest in 1875-76. Within the next year, the remaining part is also recognized for the reserve forest. This resulted in the control of forest department under the control of the remote civil administration. Later, in 1879, forest department was established as the administrative unit for forest management, with its headquarters in Khulna. For the Sundarbans, during the 1893-98 period, the first forest management plan was enacted.

The breath-taking fairs in the watershed of the Sundarbans
In the year 1911, the Sundarbans were termed as tract am waste land, which was never surveyed and no time has come under the census. Then the boundary of the Hooghly River is approximately 165 miles (266 km) across the estuary of the Meghna River. At the same time, it has set the inter boundary between these twenty-three Parganas, Khulna and Bakerganj districts. The total area of ​​the reservoir, including the reservoir, is estimated at 6,526 square miles (16,902 km). Watery beautiful forests are full of tigers and other wild animals. As a result, attempts to survey could not be very successful. The name Sundarbans has been named probably by its name as Sundari (Heritiera fomes). The hardwoods found from this are used to make various items including boats, furniture. The Sundarbans are divided into rivers, canals, and inlet all over, some of which are used for the movement of both steamers and local boats, for communication between Calcutta and Brahmaputra Basin.

Geographic structure:

As one of the three largest mangrove forests in the whole world, the Sundarbans ecosystem located in the Ganges basin is just as complex as possible. The larger part of the Sundarbans (2 6%) of the two neighboring countries, Bangladesh and India, is located on the south-west side of Bangladesh. Bay of the South; The boundary between the Balaswar River and the area of ​​higher density of cultivation in the north in the east. In the higher areas, other water bodies except the main branches of the river are bamboo and bundled with bumper and humid land. In fact, the size of the Sundarbans was about 16,700 sq km. (200 years ago). The current volume has decreased to about one-third of the past. Currently the total land area is 4,143 sq km. (With the volume of 42 km²) and the remaining water stream with rivers, inlet and canal, 1,874 sq km. Sundarbans rivers mix salt water and sweet water. Thus, the area between the sweet water of the river coming from the Ganges, the saltwater of the Bay of Bengal, is the area. It is located in Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Patuakhali, Bangladesh. The Sundarbans is located in the southwestern region of Bangladesh.

The Sundarbans has been formed by depositing silt separately from the overflow due to the interstellar flow along the Bay of Bengal for thousands of years. Its geographical structure is the delta, which has numerous waterfalls on the surface and ground water and mud pellets. In addition, the perennial grasslands, sandfire and islands above the average elevation of the sea level, which are covered in the net like the canals, underground mud walls, the original algae mud and stored sediments. The height of the Sundarbans from the sea level is 0.9 meters to 2.11 meters.

Biological components play an important role in the process of marine matter and animal diversity. The diverse variety of beaches, estuaries, permanent and transient wetlands, mud ponds, inlet, sand dunes, and clay stacks have been formed here. The mangrove plant world itself plays a role in the formation of new land. Again, in the process of transplantation of water in the interstellar plant world plays an important role. The presence of mangrove organisms creates zodiacal ecosystem in interstellar mud ponds. It holds the policy for the production of horizontal subcutters for seeds. Ananta sandalised organization and the evolutionary process are controlled by a large number of xerophytic and halophytic trees. Trail-leaf, grass and hogla stabilize the formation of sand and unorganized polystars.

Climate change effect:

The formation of the Sundarbans along the coast is influenced by the multidisciplinary factors, including the flow of streams, the bustle and aggregate stream cycles and the long coastal streams of the sea coast. Seawater currents vary considerably in different seasons. They also vary due to cyclone.
Deterioration and accumulation through these, although still not able to accurately measure, it creates a dimensional difference in the nature of the changes. However, the mangrove forest itself plays a significant role in its stability. During the seasonal rainy season, the entire Bengal Delta is submerged in water, most of which are submerged in almost half the year. The underlying sediments of the basin are primarily due to seasonal rainfall during the monsoon season and events like cyclone. In the coming years, the biggest problems faced by the people in the Ganges Basin are the increase in sea level rise.

Due to the change of freshness in highland areas, freshwater expanses of many of the Indian mangrove wetlands have significantly reduced since the end of the 19th century. At the same time, due to neo-tectonic motion, the Bengal Basin has also become a little sloping in the east, which has resulted in the greater part of fresh water being part of Bangladesh's Sundarbans.

As a result, Bangladesh's share of salinity in the Sundarbans is much less than the Indian part. According to a 1990 paper, "There is no evidence that the natural environment of the Himalayas or the" greenhouse "raises the height of the sea, making Bangladesh's flood situation alarmy. However, in 2007, in UNESCO's report titled "Climate Change and World Heritage Lessons," it has been said that due to other man-made reasons, 45 cm of sea level As the height increases, more than 75 percent of the Sundarbans may be destroyed due to man-made manifold (within the 21st century, according to the proposed intergovernmental council discussion on climate change).

The National Environment Court is also concerned because the mangrove forests against the marine storms, which are standing along the Sundarbans as well as the south-south natural wall, are not enough to save them.


Two types of biosphere are found in the Sundarbans: forests of wetlands of wetlands and mangrove forests.

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