Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal (Hindi: ताज महल, Urdu: تاج محل) A royal tombs located in Agra, India. Mughal emperor Shahjahan built this wonderful mausoleum for his memoir, his wife Arjumand Banu Begum, who is known as Mumtaz Mahal. Construction of the building started in 1632, which was completed in about 1653 AD. Although there were many debates on the question of who made the structure of the monument, it was clear that a group of artists and artisans who had built a mausoleum were with Ustad Ahmed Lahiri, who is in the forefront of being the main designer of the Taj Mahal.

The Taj Mahal (sometimes called Taj only) is considered an attractive attraction of Mughal architecture, whose construction style combines Persia, Turkey, Indian and Islamic architecture. Although the white domed marble sultry royal mausoleum is well-liked, the Taj Mahal is actually a complex integral architecture as a whole. It was listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. One of the seventh wonders of the world is the Taj Mahal. It was then called "universally admired masterpiece of the world's heritage."
Start and motivation:

In 1631, Shah Jahan, who was a prosperous emperor of the Mughal period. He was shocked at the death of his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Mumtaz Mahal, then, died after giving birth to his 14th daughter, Gauhar Begum.

The construction of the Taj Mahal Mumtaz's death started very soon. The original tomb was completed in 1648 and the buildings and gardens around it were made more than five years later. French traveler Francis Bernier, who traveled to Agra in 1663, wrote:

I shall finish this letter with a description of the two wonderful mausoleums which constitute the chief superiority of Agra over Delhi. One was erected by Jehan-guyre [sic] in honor of his father Ekbar; and Chah-Jehan raised the other to the memory of his wife Tage Mehale, that extraordinary and celebrated beauty, of whom her husband was so enamoured it is said that he was constant to her during life, and at her death was so affected as nearly to follow her to the grave.


Taj Mahal has been built on various traditional designs, especially in Persia and Mughal architecture. Specific designs have been made exactly like the Timur and Mughal buildings. Among them, the Gur-e-Amir of Timur, the predecessor of the Mughal Empire in Samarkand, [6] the shrine of Humayun, the shrine of Imad-ud-Daulah (sometimes called the child Taj), and Shah Jahan's own Delhi Jami Mosque built in Delhi Under his patronage, the Mughal empire reaches a new level of revision. While the former Mughal buildings were built in red belt, Shahjahan introduced the white-colored marble stones.


In front of the Taj Mahal, a large charbagh (Mughal garden was divided into four parts earlier) was made. The shares are divided into 16 flower gardens, using a high level of up to 300 meters X 300 meters gardens. There is a high marble stone water maze in the middle of the shrub and the middle part of the door and in the garden, there is a simple linear pond in the north and south, to reflect the Taj Mahal. There are also many other tree-like roads and fountains in the garden.

Charbagh Garden was first made in India by the first Mughal Emperor Babur, which was designed like a garden in Persian. Charbagh means that the Garden of Paradise will be reflected. In the writings of the Mughal period, a Persian mortician described the garden of heaven as an ideal garden, which would be full in abundance. Water or water has played a major role in this description: In the text, there are four rivers formed from a mountain in the garden of heaven, and it has been separated in the north, south, east and west of the garden.

Walkway road on the side of linear pyramid

almost all Mughal Charbagas are quadrangular, with a shrine in the middle of the garden. But the Taj Mahal is different from others because its shrine is located on one side of the garden rather than in the middle of the garden. The newly discovered Mahtab Bagh on the other side of the river Yamuna indicates other types of information, the river Yamuna was included in the garden design so that it would mean the river of the heavens.

The arrangement of the garden and its architectural features such as its fountain, brick or marble road, and the flower bed of the geometric brick line are similar to those of Salimar and the same engineer Ali Mardan has designed this sequence.

Later it is known that the garden of Gopan, Daphodil, various tree plants and other plants are very prevalent. With the rapid erosion of the Mughal Emperors, garden erosion also occurs. The British took responsibility for the maintenance of the Taj Mahal during the English rule, they changed the natural landscape and gave a new look to the formal garden in London.

Other buildings:

The Taj Mahal is surrounded by three sides with walls like sandy bastions. There is no wall on the side of the river. There are more tomb outside this wall enclosure, among which are the tomb of other wives of Shahjahan and a big tomb of Mumtaz's favorite maid. These structures are mainly made of red sandy stones, to see the small size of the Mughal common tomb at that time.

In the interior (garden) walls are pillars and ceilings. Which was usually found in Hindu temples and later brought to the design of Mughal mosque. The walls are dotted with diverse dome-shaped structures, which can be seen in some places, which are used as watch basin. Which is currently being used as a museum. The main entrance or door of the Taj Mahal is made of marble stones. The design and style of the door reminds the architecture of the Mughal emperors. The arches of the arches are similar to the arches of the tomb and the pistach arch is compiled with the caligraphy or clerical design of the tomb. Its roof is designed to be similar to other sandy stone buildings, with beautiful geometric shapes.
At the end of the courtyard there are two large buildings of the sandstone whose open part is open. The rear side is parallel to the east and west walls.
Just look at the two buildings, just like the reflection of another. The eastern facade is the mosque, the other is the jawab (north), whose main purpose was to maintain balance (which was used to stay guests during the Mughal period). Jawab Separation is not just a hamburger and its floor is designed where the mosque floor 569 is used to cut the stain with black stone to pray for the devotees.

The basic design of the mosque is similar to the other buildings built by Shahjahan, in particular his mosque-e-Jahannuma or Delhi Jami Mosque - a large house with three domes. The places of worship of mosques in Mughal period were divided into three parts. A small prayer place on both sides of the place of prayer. Each of the Taj Mahal has huge dome above the place of prayer, but the place is open.

Construction of the building was completed in 1643 AD.

The tomb:


At the root of the Taj Mahal is the white marbled tomb. Which is basically the Persian character like the other Mughal tomb, such as the symmetric building with iwan, a bow shaped door, and a large dome above. The tomb stands on a square bedrock. The foundation structure is huge and with few rooms. The memorial memorials of Mumtaz Mahal and Shahjahan have been installed in the main hall, their graves are one level below.

The foundation is in fact a corner of a broken cube, around 55 meters (see the floor plan). A big pistach in the long side, or a big bow shaped way, the Iwan's structure, with the same bow-shaped verandah above. This main arc shaped arcade has increased in front of the roof top of the building with the foreground. On the other side of the courtyard, the excess pistachas have moved backwards, this feature of the pistacha is used in the same way in the corner area. The design is completely symmetric and is the same on each side of the building. There are four monuments, each corner of the base, one minarer, facing the broken corner.


The top marble stone dome is the most attractive feature of the tomb. Its size is almost the size of the building's size, which is approximately 35 meters. Because of its height, the dome is placed above a 7 meter height cylinder-shaped drum.

Due to its shape, this dome is also called the dome or peacock dome. The top of the dome is arranged with a lotus, which glows more in its height. Above the dome, there is probably a copper or casket bar that has Persian and Hindu decorative ornaments.

The rows decorated on the dome

the importance of the big dome is due to its four small dome in its four corners. Just like the big dome to see the small domes. Their pillars went up from the ground floor to the roof. There are also old bars of copper or copper in small domes.

The long conical pinnacle or glaze is raised above the walls and appears at the height of the dome.

The lotus has small dome and Guldasta.


On the big dome there is an old conical pinnacle like crown. The crown was made of gold before the 1800s, but now it is made of bronze. This peak is a fine example of the union of Persian and Hindu decorative elements. At the top of the top, there is a moon, which is the Islamic material, and the horns of the peak are made to heaven or heaven. The peak on the big dome and the horned horns form a traditional symbol, which is similar to that of the Hindu god Shiva.


The bases of the minarets are in the corners - four big straps, each with a height of more than 40 meters. It is also noticed in the minarets that the Tajmahal counteractivity.

The patrols have been designed in the design of the mosque's traditional monument, where Mu'azzin offers Azan for prayers. Each monastery is divided into three equal elevations with two verandahs. At the top of the tower is the last verandah, above which the tomb of the tomb has a similar umbrella.

Miner umbrellas have also done similar work, such as the lotus design designation. Every miner is stacked out of the vicinity, so that the tower may never collapse on top of the original tomb.

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